I consulted dozens of books, reports and newspaper articles to create Long Beach Wild. As such, we could only include a partial list in the printed book. This is a more complete list.


Abraham, Dorothy. Lone Cone: Life on the West Coast of Vancouver Island, B.C. Vancouver: privately printed. 1945.

Andersen, Marnie. Women of the West Coast: Then and Now. Sidney, BC: Sand Dollar Pres. 1993.

Arima, E. Y. The West Coast People: The Nootka of Vancouver Island and Cape Flattery. Victoria, BC: British Columbia Provincial Museum. 1983.

Armia, E. Y., et al. Between Ports Alberni and Renfrew: Notes on West Coast Peoples. Canadian Ethnology Service, Mercury Series Paper 121. Hull, QC: Canadian Museum of Civilization. 1991.

Barman, Jean. The West Beyond the West: A History of British Columbia. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996.

Bossin, Bob. Settling Clayoquot. Sound Heritage Series #33. Victoria: Sound and Moving Image Division, BC Provincial Archives. 1981.

Brabant, Augustin. Mission to Nootka: 1874-1900. Charles Lillard (ed.). Sidney, BC: Gray’s Publishing. 1977.

Brubacher, J., C. Cunningham, et al. The Sound Anthology: News Around Clayoquot Sound. Tofino, BC: The Sound Magazine. 1997.

Cannings, Richard and Sydney Cannings. British Columbia: A Natural History. Vancouver: Greystone Books. 1996.

Carr, Emily. Growing Pains: An Autobiography. Toronto: Irwin. 1946.

Darroch, Lois. Bright Land: A Warm Look at Arthur Lismer. Toronto: Merritt. 1981.

Drucker, Philip. The Northern and Central Nootkan Tribes. Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 144. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1951.

Ford, Corey. Where the Sea Breaks Its Back: The Epic Story of Early Naturalist Georg Steller and the Russian Exploraton of Alaska. Seattle: Alaska Northwest Books. 1966.

Fukawa, Masako, Stanley Fukawa, and the Nikkei Fishermen’s History Book Committee. Spirit of the Nikkei Fleet: BC’s Japanese Canadian Fishermen. Maderia Park, BC: Harbour. 2009.

Gibson, Gordon. Bull of the Woods. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre. 1980.

Gordon, Katherine. Made to Measure: A History of Land Surveying in British Columbia. Winlaw, BC: Sono Nis. 2006.

Guppy, Walter. Wet Coast Ventures: Mine-Finding on Vancouver Island. Victoria, BC: Cappis Press. 1988.

—— Clayoquot Soundings: A History of Clayoquot Sound, 1880s-1980s. Tofino, BC: Grassroots Publication. 1997.

——- A Place for Gold. Tofino, BC: Grassroots Publication. 2000.

——- Eighty Years in Tofino. Duncan, BC: Firgrove Publishing. 2002.

Halliday, W. M. Williams. British Columbia Directory, 1891. Victoria, BC: Ellis & Co., 1890.

Hayes, Derek. Historical Atlas of British Columbia and the Pacific Northwest. Vancouver: Cavendish Books. 1999.

Hempsall, Leslie. We Stand on Guard for Thee: A History of the War Years at the Royal Canadian Air Force Stations, Ucluelet and Tofino. Surrey, BC: Coomber-Hempsall Publishing. 2003.

Hill, Beth. The Remarkable World of Frances Barkley: 1769-1845. Sidney, BC: Gray’s Publishing. 1978.

Hoover, Alan L. (Ed.) Nuu-chah-nulth Voices, Histories, Objects and Journeys. Victoria, BC: Royal British Columbia Museum. 2000.

Horsfield, Margaret. Voices From the Sound: Chronicles of Clayoquot Sound and Tofino 1889-1929. Nanaimo, BC: Salal Books. 2008.

Kenyon, Karl. Sea Otter in Handbook of Marine Mammals, Vol. 1. Sam Ridgway and Richard Harrison (Ed.). London, England: Academic Pres. 1981.

Lillard, Charles. Seven Shillings a Year: The History of Vancouver Island. Ganges, BC: Horsdal and Schubart. 1986.

Lillard, Charles and Terry Glavin. A Voice Great Within Us: The Story of Chinoook. Vancouver: New Star Books. 1998.

Love, John. Sea Otters. Golden, Colorado: Fulcrum Publishing. 1992.

McDiarmid, Howard. Pacific Rim Park: A Country Doctor’s Role in Preserving Long Beach and Establishing the New Wickaninnish Inn. Victoria: Howard McDiarmid. 2009.

McNamee, James. Florencia Bay. London: New Authors Limited. 1960.

McNeil, Florence. Emily. Toronto: Clarke, Irwin & Company. 1975.

Marriott, Anne. The Circular Coast: Poems News and Selected. Oakville, ON: Mosaic Press/Valley Editions. 1981.

Moser, Charles. Reminiscences of the West Coast of Vancouver Island. Victoria: The Acme Press. 1926.

Murray, Peter. The Vagabond Fleet: A Chronicle of the North Pacific Sealing Schooner Trade. Victoria: Sono Nis. 1988.

Nicholson, George. Vancouver Island’s West Coast 1762-1962. Victoria: Morriss Printing. 1962.

Peterson, Jan. Journeys: Down the Alberni Canal to Barkley Sound. Lantzville, BC: Oolichan Books. 1999.

Reid, Dennis. Canadian Jungle: The Later Work of Arthur Lismer. Toronto: Art Galley of Ontario. 1985.

Richards, George H. Vancouver Island Pilot. London: British Hydrographic Office. 1864.

Rogers, Fred. More Shipwrecks of British Columbia. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre. 1992.

Scott, Andrew. The Encyclopedia of Raincoast Place Names. Madeira Park, BC: Harbour Publishing. 2009.

Shilling, Grant. The Cedar Surf: an informal history of surfing in British Columbia. Vancouver: New Star Books. 2003.

Speedie, Julie. Wonderful Sphinx: The Biography of Ada Leverson. London: Virago Press. 1993.

Sproat, Gilbert Malcolm. The Nootka: Scenes and Studies of Savage Life. Edited and annotated by Charles Lillard. Victoria: Sono Nis Press. 1987.

Stewart, Hilary. Cedar. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre. 1984.

Stone, Jim. My Dad, The Rum Runner. Waterloo, Ontario: North Waterloo Academic Press. 2002.

Streetly, Joanna. Salt in Our Blood: An Anthology of West Coast Moments. Tofino, BC: Aquila Instincts. 2002.

Suttles, Wayne. (Ed.) Handbook of North American Indians: Northwest Coast. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institute. 1990.

Thomas, Edward Harper. Chinook: A History and Dictionary. Portland, Oregon: Binfords & Mort. 1935.

Turner, Robert. Vancouver Island Railroads. Victoria, BC: Sono Nis Prss. 1997.

Twigg, Alan. First Invaders: The Literary Origins of British Columbia. Vancouver: Ronsdale. 2004.

Walbran, John T. British Columbia Coast Names 1592-1906: Their Origin and History. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre. 1971.

Wallace, Scott and Brian Gisborne. Basking Sharks: The Slaughter of BC’s Gentle Giants. Vancouver: New Star. 2006.

Weicht, Chris. Jericho Beach and the West Coast Flying Boat Stations. Chemainus, BC: MCW Enterprises. 1997.

Wells, R. E. A Guide to Shipwrecks: Cape Beale to Cox Point, Including Barkley Sound. Sooke, BC: Morriss Printing. 1984.

Windh, Jacqueline. The Wild Edge: Clayoquot, Long Beach & Barkley Sound. Madeira Park, BC: Harbour Publishing. 2004.

Wyndham, Violet. The Sphinx and Her Circle: A Biographical Sketch of Ada Leverson. New York: Vanguard Press. 1963.

Yorath, Chris. The Geology of Southern Vancouver Island. Madeira Park, BC: Harbour Publishing. 2005.


Admark Ltd., Island Events. Vol. 9. No. 10. August 12, 1949.

Anonymous. “Old Punch to Retire When Sea Road Cut.” Daily Colonist. December 2, 1956.

Anonymous. “Tofino News.” West Coast Advocate. June 14, 1956.

Anonymous. “Chambers Bid for Big Park at Long Beach.” Victoria Daily Times. March 25, 1964.

Anonymous. “Playwright Misses Show Opening.” The Tofino-Ucluelet Press. June 12, 1969.

Anonymous. “Opening Ceremony for Long Beach Section of National Park by 1972.” Tofino-Ucluelet Press. January 22, 1970.

Anonymous. “’Wreck Bay Isn’t in Eden’” Vancouver Sun. February 3, 1970.

Anonymous. “Curling Rink Closing Down.” Alberni Valley Times. September 21, 1967.

Anonymous. “Long Beach Unrest Involved Hundreds.” Vancouver Sun. May 22, 1973.

Anonymous. “Whale Sightings Unique Opportunity.” The Westcoaster. July 18, 1973.

Anonymous. “Residents voice opinion on park.” The Westcoaster. August 14, 1974.

Anonymous. “Beach ban applauded.” Alberni Valley Times. May 4, 1976.

Ayre, Robert. “A Sheaf of Summer Sketches.” Canadian Art. Vol. 13 No. 2. Winter 1956.

Banfield, W. E. “Banfield Explorations.” An eight-part series originally published August 12 to September 17, 1858 in the Victoria Daily Gazette. Reprinted in the Alberni Valley Times, February, 1984.

British Columbia government. BC Voters’ List. 1963.

Brandon, M. T. “Deformational styles in a sequence of olistostromal mélanges, Pacific Rim Complex, western Vancouver Island, Canada,” The Geological Society of America Bulletin. Vol. 101, 1989, pp. 1520-1542.

British Colonist. Accessed through database: Victoria’s Victoria, 2007. (See Taylor and Mindenhall below.) Wreck Bay articles: October 18, 1900 – November 19, 1903.

British Colonist. “Arrival of Florencia’s Crew.” January 11, 1861.

British Colonist. “Recognition of Meritorious Conduct.” June 29, 1880.

British Colonist. “The Noble Red Man.” June 17, 1881.

Clague, John J. “Tsunamis,” in A Synthesis of Geological Hazards in Canada (ed.) G. R. Brooks; Geological Survey of Canada, Bulletin 548, p. 27-42. 2001.

Clayoquot Sound Scientific Panel. “First Nations’ Perspectives Relating to Forest Practices Standards in Clayoqout Sound.” Appendices V and VI. 1995.

Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. Annual Reports from Harry Guillod, 1881-1903. Copies held at the Alberni Archives.

Fotheringham, Alan. “The Magic Carpet.” Vancouver Sun. June 30, 1961.

Guppy, Walter. “The Road to Tofino,” British Columbia Historical News. Vol. 33 No. 1. 1999. pp. 16-18.

Hammer, Les. “Trader Thornberg of Clayoquot,” three-part series, The Daily Colonist. June 23, 30 and July 7, 1974.

Hanson, Phil. “Surfing Up With Safety.” Vancouver Sun. May 4, 1973.

Hardy, Dave. “’Paradise’ Residents See Red: Transients in Raw Plague Beach.” Vancouver Sun. July 24, 1969.

Heywood, Rosalie. “Vancouver Island’s Long Beach Playground of the Future.” The Daily Colonist. October 2, 1966.

Hodgson, Ernest. “British Columbia Earthquake: June 23, 1946,” in The Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada. Vol. XL No. 8. October 1946.

Honeyman, Scott. “Uptight Rap at Wreck Bay.” The Vancouver Sun. June 9, 1971.

Honeyman, Scott. “Park Squatters Not At Home to Strangers With Questions.” The Vancouver Sun. October 1, 1971.

Hunter, Bob. “Idyllic, peaceful old Long Beach…Zap, zoom, boom!” Vancouver Sun. August 6, 1970.

Hunter, Bob. Column. Vancouver Sun. February 5, 1975.

Hutchinson, Pat. “Census Taking at Wreck Bay, May-June 1971,” In Cedar Bark and Sea. Port Alberni: Ucluelet Recreation Commission. n.d.

Lautens, Trevor. Column. Vancouver Sun. June 16, 1967.

McDonnel, Derry. “Cars on Beach Discouraged.” Alberni Valley Times. July 23, 1973.

McMillan, Alan and Ian Hutchinson. “When the Mountain Dwarfs Danced: Aboriginal Traditions of Paleoseismic Events Along the Cascadia Subduction Zone of Western North America,” Ethnohistory. Vol. 49. No. 1. Winter 2002.

McMinn, R. M. O. “Pacific Holiday.” Island Events. June 20, 1952.

Mackie, Richard. “The Short, Happy Life and Sad Death of Fred Tibbs,” The Beaver, February/March 1991.

Maiden, Cecil. “The Edge of Silver Thunder.” Victoria Daily Colonist. n.d. 1951.

Mika, John. “The Doctor Speaks Out: Swinger Goes to Bat for Swiggers.” Victoria Daily Times. February 14, 1968.

Moan, Pat. “Anne Strolls in the Woods,” Vancouver Sun. May 5, 1971.

Murray, Mrs. A. “Long Beach, A Sleeping Beauty.” Island Events. 194X.

Nicholson, George. “On the Fringe of the Blue Pacific.” Victoria Daily Colonist. May 24, 1952.

——- “Motorists’ First View of Pacific Promised With Completion of Tofino Road.” Victoria Daily Colonist. September 28, 1958

——- “They’re Held by Fascination.” Victoria Daily Colonist. July 15, 1956.

Peterson, Jan. “25 years ago today we were cleaning up,” Alberni Valley Times. March 28, 1989.

Scott, R. Bruce. “Coastline Scenery – Our Undeveloped Asset.” Victoria Daily Times. April 3, 1937.

Scott, R. Bruce. “West Coast Area May Be Developed Into National Park.” Victoria Daily Times. November 19, 1938.

Sheehan, A. “Long Beach Too Popular,” The Vancouver Sun. May 14, 1973.

Smith, George A. “Reminscences of an Old Surveyor.” The Link. Vol. 11. No. 4. January, 1989.

Supreme Court of British Columbia. Reasons for Judgement of the Honourable Mr. Justice Bouck. No. 467/1978 and No. 463/1978 Between Monashee Enterprises Ltd. and the Minister of Recreation and Conservation for the Province of British Columbia. July 10-11, 1978.

Sutton, W. E. Vancouver Island and Its Resources. British Colonist. February 15, 1903.

Taylor, W. A. “Crown Lands: a history of survey systems.” Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Lands, Parks and Housing. 1975.

Tofino-Ucluelet Press. “First Rancher Here in 1893.” November 28, 1963.

Trebett, Margaret. “Teeppe Workshop Produces A Gift for Royalty.” The Daily Colonist. July 13, 1971.

Twin Cities Times. “West Coast Old Timer Tells of Early Days.” June 1, 1955.

Verbrugge, Bill. “Visitors cramped…while miles of beach are deserted.” Alberni Valley Times. May 25, 1973.

Watson, Jane. “The effects of sea otter foraging on shallow rocky communities off northwest Vancouver Island,” BC. PhD Thesis, University of California, Santa Cruz. 1993.

West Coast Advocate. “Tofino News,” November 12, 1941.

Williams, Margaret. “Bruce Scott: The Man and His Dream.” Victoria Daily Colonist. November 21, 1983.

Private Documents

Futcher, R. A. Memorandum re. Accidental Drownings at Long Beach, March 31, 1946. Courtesy Ken Gibson.

Joint Road Committee. Letter to BC Minister of Public Works and other documents related to the creation of Highway 4. Held in the Tofino Public Library.

Hamilton, Mike. A Cruise in Clayoquot. Unpublished memoirs. n.d. Courtesy Ken Gibson.

Hamilton, Mike. Dream Isle and Its Owner. Unpublished memoirs. n.d. Courtesy Ken Gibson.

Hamilton, Mike. Oldtimer and Oldtimer’s Son. Unpublished memoirs. n.d. Courtesy Ken Gibson.

MacLeod, Ron. Growing Up in Tofino: Some Random Memories. 2002. Held in the Tofino Public Library.

Scott, R. Bruce. How the Pacific Rim National Park Was Made. n.d. Held in the Bruce Scott Collection, Pacific Rim National Park Reserve.


British Columbia Legislature. Hansard – 1970 Legislative Session, 1st Session, 29th Parliament. Retrieved August 25, 2009.

Charleson, Sue. A Tsunami Hits Hot Springs Cove. Retrieved August 10, 2009.

Natural Resources Canada, Seismic Zones in Western Canada. Retrieved July 17, 2009.

Natural Resources Canada, Southwestern British Columbia Earthquakes of the last 30 days (2009/06/16 to 2009/07/16). Retrieved July 17, 2009.

RCAF, Tofino – Daily Diaries and Narrative Reports. December 1, 1953 – November 30, 1957. Retrieved July 7, 2009.

Windh, Jacqueline. Geology of the Botanical Gardens. Retrieved July 9, 2009.

Winegarten, Renee. Ada Leverson 1862-1933. Jewish Women’s Archive. Retrieved November 3, 2009.

Archival Material

BC Archives:

Buckle, Marilyn and Neil. 1979? Interview by Bob Bossin. Tape recording. Part of Bob Bossin (Tofino-Clayoquot) oral history collection. T3878:0014-0015.

Carmichael, Alfred. Journal and Papers. MS 2305.

Dawley, Walter. Papers. MS 1076.

Donahue, Hazel. 1979? Interview by Bob Bossin. Tape recording. Part of Bob Bossin (Tofino-CLayoquot) oral history collection. T3878:0026-0027.

Garrard, Francis C. Reminscences: 1863-1941. MS 0046.

Hillier, Bert and Peter. 1979? Interview by Bob Bossin. Tape recording. Part of Bob Bossin (Tofino-Clayoquot) oral history collection. T3878:0040-0041.

Hillier, E. A. History of Ucluelet 1899 to 1954. MS 2169.

Jackson family fonds. Journals and guest book. MS 1113.

Martin, Phyllis. 1966. Interview by Imbert Orchard. Tape recording. T0863:0001.

Moser, Charles. Diary, with edits by Dorothy Abraham. MS 2172.

Robertson, Alistair I. Report on Surveys in Clayoquot and Barclay Districts, Vancouver Island. December 22, 1912. Microfiche reel XX, pp. D308-310.

Sloman, Alma. 1966. Interview by Imbert Orchard. Tape recording. TO864:0001.

Village of Tofino. Brochure: “Tofino…Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow.” n.d.

Whittington, Mary Margaret (Peg). 1979? Interview by Bob Bossin. Tape recording. Part of Bob Bossin (Tofino-Clayoquot) oral history collection. T3878:0033-0034.

Wickaninnish Inn. Brochure. n.d.

Other Archives:

Banfield, William E. Oath of Allegiance and copies of reports to the Colonial Secretary 1859-1862. Copies held at the Pacific Rim National Park Reserve Archives, WRO #4033.

McCandless, R. Mrs. Mary (Peg) Whittington – Long Beach (Pacific Rim National Park) in the Thirties and Forties: A Memoir. 1994. Pacific Rim National Park Reserve Archives.

Murphy, Robert H. Commentary on George Jackson’s Long Beach Diaries, January 1927 to Mary 1929. 1994. Pacific Rim National Park Reserve Historic Manuscript Collection. HM-5.

Raue, A. and Barbara Hottson. Memories of hike to Long Beach in 1930. Pacific Rim National Park Reserve Historic Manuscript Collection. HM-12.

Scott, R. Bruce. Pioneers of the Southwest Coast of Vancouver Island: A Series of Translated Interviews. Bruce Scott Collection. Pacific Rim National Park Reserve Archives WRO 4082. 1973.

Taylor, Leona and Dorothy Mindenhall. Index of Historical Victoria Newspapers, Victoria’s Victoria, 2007.

Torrens, W. Copy of report submitted by W. Torrens to Colonial Secretary, September 1865. Pacific Rim National Park Reserve Archives WRO #4070.

Wardle, J. M. Report on Proposed National Park in Long Bay and Kennedy Lake District, Vancouver Island, BC. Government of Canada: Canadian National Parks Engineering Service. January 26, 1931. Pacific Rim National Park Reserve Archive.

Whittington, Peg. Guest book of Singing Sands Resort. Pacific Rim National Park Reserve Historic Manuscript Collection. HM-XX.

Wickaninnish Provincial Park. Staff Summer Report. 1967. Pacific Rim National Park Reserve Archive.